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Vyacheslav Nekrasov
Vyacheslav Nekrasov

Seventeen 135 September 1986


An authoritarian military dictatorship ruled Chile for seventeen years, between 11 September 1973 and 11 March 1990. The dictatorship was established after the democratically-elected socialist government of Salvador Allende was overthrown in a coup d'état backed by the United States on 11 September 1973. During this time, the country was ruled by a military junta headed by General Augusto Pinochet. The military used the breakdown of democracy and the economic crisis that took place during Allende's presidency to justify its seizure of power. The dictatorship presented its mission as a "national reconstruction." The coup was the result of multiple forces, including pressure from conservative groups, certain political parties, union strikes and other domestic unrest, as well as international factors.[A]




Seventeen 135 September 1986



Representing a major shift in attitudes, the CPCh founded the FPMR on 14 December 1983, to engage in a violent armed struggle against the junta.[86] Most notably the organisation attempted to assassinate Pinochet on the 7 September 1986 under 'Operation XX Century' but were unsuccessful.[87] The group also assassinated the author of the 1980 Constitution, Jaime Guzmán on 1 April 1991.[88] They continued to operate throughout the 1990s, being designated as a terrorist organisation the U.S. Department of State and MI6, until supposedly ceasing to operate in 1999.[89]


The Days of National Protest (Jornadas de Protesta Nacional) were days of civil demonstrations that periodically took place in Chile in the 1980s against the military junta. They were characterized by street demonstrations in the downtown avenues of the city in the mornings, strikes during the day, and barricades and clashes in the periphery of the city throughout the night. The protests were faced with increased government repression from 1984, with the biggest and last protest summoned in July 1986. The protests changed the mentality of many Chileans, strengthening opposition organizations and movements in the 1988 plebiscite.


In 1980, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos had invited the entire Junta (consisting at this point of Pinochet, Merino, Matthei, and Mendoza) to visit the country as part of a planned tour of Southeast Asia in an attempt to help improve their image and bolster military and economic relations with the Philippines, Japan, South Korea, and Hong Kong. Due to intense U.S. pressure at the last minute (while Pinochet's plane was halfway en route over the Pacific), Marcos cancelled the visit and denied Pinochet landing rights in the country. Pinochet and the junta were further caught off guard and humiliated when they were forced to land in Fiji to refuel for the planned return to Santiago, only to be met with airport staff who refused to assist the plane in any way (the Fijian military was called in instead), invasive and prolonged customs searches, exorbitant fuel and aviation service charges, and hundreds of angry protesters who pelted his plane with eggs and tomatoes. The usually stoic and calm Pinochet became enraged, firing his Foreign Minister Hernán Cubillos, several diplomats, and expelling the Philippine Ambassador.[114][115] Relations between the two countries were restored only in 1986 when Corazon Aquino assumed the presidency of the Philippines after Marcos was ousted in a non-violent revolution, the People Power Revolution.


After the Chilean military coup in 1973, Fidel Castro promised Chilean revolutionaries far-reaching aid. Initially Cuban support for resistance consisted of clandestine distribution of funds to Chile, human rights campaigns at the UN to isolate the Chilean dictatorship, and efforts to undermine US-Chilean bilateral relations. Eventually Cuba's policy changed to arming and training insurgents. Once their training was completed, Cuba helped the guerrillas return to Chile, providing false passports and false identification documents.[144] Cuba's official newspaper, Granma, boasted in February 1981 that the "Chilean Resistance" had successfully conducted more than 100 "armed actions" throughout Chile in 1980. By late 1980, at least 100 highly trained MIR guerrillas had reentered Chile and the MIR began building a base for future guerrilla operations in Neltume, a mountainous forest region in southern Chile. In a massive operation spearheaded by Chilean Army Para-Commandos, security forces involving some 2,000 troops, were forced to deploy in the Neltume mountains from June to November 1981, where they destroyed two MIR bases, seizing large caches of munitions and killing a number of MIR commandos.In 1986, Chilean security forces discovered 80 tons of munitions, including more than three thousand M-16 rifles and more than two million rounds of ammunition, at the tiny fishing harbor of Carrizal Bajo, smuggled ashore from Cuban fishing trawlers off the coast of Chile.[145] The operation was overseen by Cuban naval intelligence, and also involved the Soviet Union. Cuban Special Forces had also instructed the FPMR guerrillas that ambushed Augusto Pinochet's motorcade on 8 September 1986, killing five bodyguards and wounding 10.[146]


convictions were affirmed. Commonwealth v. Lykus, 367 Mass. 191 (1975). Subsequently, the defendant filed a motion for a new trial. The motion was denied, and the defendant filed a motion for allowance of appeal from the denial of his motion for a new trial with a single justice of this court. G. L. c. 278, Section 33E (1988 ed.). See Leaster v. Commonwealth, 385 Mass. 547 (1982). See also Dickerson v. Commonwealth, 396 Mass. 740 (1986). The single justice allowed the defendant's motion to appeal to the full court as to three issues: (1) ineffective assistance of counsel at the original trial through defense counsel's failure to move to suppress evidence obtained by a wiretap; (2) improper instruction by the trial judge regarding the time of death of the victim; and (3) ineffective assistance of counsel at the defendant's sentencing hearing. We affirm the denial of the motion for a new trial, but remand the case for resentencing of the defendant.


Mass. 775 (1985). When faced with a claim that a jury charge has created an impermissible presumption, this court will "consider the charge in its entirety," Commonwealth v. Nieves, 394 Mass. 355, 360 (1985), to determine whether a presumption has been created, and if one has, whether the jury instructions as a whole could have reasonably misled a jury to believe that the Commonwealth was relieved of its burden to prove each element of the crime beyond a reasonable doubt. Commonwealth v. Adrey, 397 Mass. 751, 755 (1986). Commonwealth v. Moreira, 385 Mass. 792, 796 (1982). In this regard, we note that the judge instructed the jury at length regarding the Commonwealth's burden to prove each element beyond a reasonable doubt. Commonwealth v. Doucette, 391 Mass. 443, 451 (1984). In addition, the judge provided the jury with a thorough explanation of the defendant's presumption of innocence. Commonwealth v. Pickles, supra at 779 n.5.


[Note 8] General Laws c. 272, Section 99 B 7, states: "The term `designated offense' shall include the following offenses in connection with organized crime as defined in the preamble: arson, assault and battery with a dangerous weapon, extortion, bribery, burglary, embezzlement, forgery, gaming in violation of section seventeen of chapter two hundred and seventy-one of the general laws, intimidation of a witness or juror, kidnapping, larceny, lending of money or things of value in violation of the general laws, mayhem, murder, any offense involving the possession or sale of a narcotic or harmful drug, perjury, prostitution, robbery, subornation of perjury, any violation of this section, being an accessory to any of the foregoing offenses and conspiracy or attempt or solicitation to commit any of the foregoing offenses."


The 1986 NatWest Trophy was the 6th NatWest Trophy. It was an English limited overs county cricket tournament which was held between 25 June and 6 September 1986.[1] The tournament was won by Sussex who defeated Lancashire by 7 wickets in the final at Lord's.


The seventeen first-class counties, were joined by thirteen Minor Counties: Berkshire, Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Cornwall, Cumberland, Devon, Dorset, Durham, Hertfordshire, Northumberland, Oxfordshire, Staffordshire and Suffolk. The Ireland and Scotland teams also participated.


Teams who won in the first round progressed to the second round. The winners in the second round then progressed to the quarter-final stage. Winners from the quarter-finals then progressed to the semi-finals from which the winners then went on to the final at Lord's which was held on 6 September 1986.


The allowable weight differences shall be between weight classes. Example a contestant one hundred fourteen pounds, super flyweight may compete against an opponent one hundred seventeen pounds, bantamweight. There is no more than a three pound difference between weight classes.


SUMMARY: These final standards amend the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) standards issued June 17, 1986 (51 FR 22612, 29 CFR 1910.1001, June 20, 1986) for occupational exposure to asbestos in general industry, and the construction industry, 29 CFR 1926.1101 (previously 1926.58). In addition, they include a separate standard covering occupational exposure to asbestos in the shipyard industry, (29 CFR 1915.1001). Major revisions in these standards include a reduced time-weighted-average permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc) for all asbestos work in all industries, a new classification scheme for asbestos construction and shipyard industry work which ties mandatory work practices to work classification, a presumptive asbestos identification requirement for "high hazard" asbestos containing building materials, limited notification requirements for employers who use unlisted compliance methods in high risk asbestos abatement work, and mandatory methods of control for brake and clutch repair. 041b061a72


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