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Grayson Ramirez
Grayson Ramirez

Cutting Behavior Spreads To The Urban Community ##HOT##

Self-mutilation is a self-destructive pattern of behavior that can sometimes accompany drug and alcohol addiction. When emotional pain becomes intolerable and relief is needed immediately, people will seek sources to relieve this pain. The physical pain with cutting distracts from the emotional pain, temporarily. The emotional pain does return and the pattern develops. Underlying issues that have been attributed to someone developing cutting behavior is sexual and physical abuse, neglect, and alcoholism. These are the most commonly reported reasons for this type of behavior. Until now therapists and researchers have mostly concentrated their focus on the white community participating in the behavior but recently the African American and Hispanic populations are having a surge of this behavior in their young girls. Houston, Texas is one of the cities that are trying to shed light on this epidemic. (Williams, S. 2012)Unhealthy coping such as substance abuse and cutting behaviors are all similar in the patterns of behavior. Each behavior is self-destructive and a difficult addiction to overcome, but it is possible through addiction treatment, support group meetings and the fellowship of recovering addicts who have experienced similar unhealthy patterns.

Cutting Behavior Spreads to the Urban Community

The City Form Lab at MIT focuses on urban planning, mobility and urban design research. We develop new software tools for researching relationships between city form and human mobility patterns; use cutting-edge spatial analysis and statistics to investigate how urban form and land-use developments affect urban mobility and business location choices; and develop creative design and policy solutions for contemporary urban challenges. By bringing together multi-disciplinary urban research expertise and excellence in design, we develop context-sensitive and timely insight about the role of urban form and planning in affecting the quality of life in 21st century cities. See our news, projects and papers for the latest updates.

Autism Spectrum Disorder can be baffling to educators, but CUNY has established itself as a leader in educating autistic college students by providing cutting-edge supports developed from groundbreaking research conducted at the University. CUNY enrolls more than 800 students with ASD, a condition that affects social-communication, interests and behaviors.

In Oakland, as in cities across thenation, people of color were impacted by the 1940/50s federal housing redliningpolicy excluded communities of color from the wealth building opportunity ofhomeownership. Their neighborhoods were abandoned to urban decay after Whiteflight to the suburbs. Highway 17 (now I-880 or Nimitz Freeway) was builtthrough the heart of the African American community, disrupting community cohesion,and economic viability by cutting it off from Downtown. Many homes andbusinesses were destroyed to build the Cypress Viaduct and the rest of theNimitz Freeway. Further urban renewal caused the destruction of the area aroundMarket and 7th streets to make way for the Acorn High Rise apartments. Thisurban renewal thrust in West Oakland continued into the 1960s with theconstruction of BART and the Main Post Office Building at 1675 7th Street. ManyAfrican American and Latino families were displaced from West Oakland duringthis period. African Americans relocated to East Oakland, especially theElmhurst district and surrounding areas; Latinos moved into the Fruitvaleneighborhood.

Malaria was nearly eradicated from India in the early 1960s but the disease has re-emerged as a major public health problem. Early set backs in malaria eradication coincided with DDT shortages. Later in the 1960s and 1970s malaria resurgence was the result of technical, financial and operational problems. In the late 1960s malaria cases in urban areas started to multiply, and upsurge of malaria was widespread. As a result in 1976, 6.45 million cases were recorded by the National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP), highest since resurgence. The implementation of urban malaria scheme (UMS) in 1971-72 and the modified plan of operation (MPO) in 1977 improved the malaria situation for 5-6 yr. Malaria cases were reduced to about 2 million. The impact was mainly on vivax malaria. Easy availability of drugs under the MPO prevented deaths due to malaria and reduced morbidity, a peculiar feature of malaria during the resurgence. The Plasmodium falciparum containment programme (PfCP) launched in 1977 to contain the spread of falciparum malaria reduced falciparum malaria in the areas where the containment programme was operated but its general spread could not be contained. P. falciparum showed a steady upward trend during the 1970s and thereafter. Rising trend of malaria was facilitated by developments in various sectors to improve the national economy under successive 5 year plans. Malaria at one time a rural disease, diversified under the pressure of developments into various ecotypes. These ecotypes have been identified as forest malaria, urban malaria, rural malaria, industrial malaria, border malaria and migration malaria; the latter cutting across boundaries of various epidemiological types. Further, malaria in the 1990s has returned with new features not witnessed during the pre-eradication days. These are the vector resistance to insecticide(s); pronounced exophilic vector behaviour; extensive vector breeding grounds created principally by the water resource development projects, urbanization and industrialization; change in parasite formula in favour of P. falciparum; resistance in P. falciparum to chloroquine and other anti-malarial drugs; and human resistance to chemical control of vectors. Malaria control has become a complex enterprise, and its management requires decentralization and approaches based on local transmission involving multi-sectoral action and community participation.

A remaining challenge facing New York in its quest for full-integration will be how to ensure behavioral health services are effectively provided. While Special Needs Plans for individuals with significant behavioral health challenges will be one strategy, New York will also look at options that integrate behavioral health organizations with other care management organizations that ensure continuity, as well as prevent the "medical model" of care from displacing community-based behavioral health service delivery. Fully-integrated care management for all must mean expanded access to evidence-based behavioral health services.

The workgroup made numerous other recommendations about how to improve access to housing and healthcare. Examples include but are not limited to: co-locate behavioral and health services in housing, expand and improve independent senior housing, evaluate ways to create opportunities for diversion from hospitals, ensure coordination with Health Homes, streamline community siting processes, ensure the viability of existing housing resources, and design a Moving On initiative to help move individuals to more independent settings thereby freeing up needed resources for those most in need.

Kingsboro Psychiatric Center: The Office of Mental Health (OMH) should close the inpatient service of Kingsboro Psychiatric Center (KPC) and, working with the Department of Health, redirect resources to community-based behavioral health services that would function in collaboration with Brooklyn hospitals. Intermediate psychiatric hospital care for Brooklyn residents and court referrals should be provided primarily by South Beach Psychiatric Center, which currently serves a large section of Brooklyn. KPCs existing array of community-based services should remain within the community.


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